Glossary of  Terms   T                                                     Important

Detailed below is a glossary of cosmetic surgery terms.

Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)
Brachioplasty is a procedure that removes/reduces excess skin from the upper arm, and in consequence it is sometimes referred to as 'arm tightening'. The negative aspect of this procedure is the permanent and noticeable scar.   An Arm Lift is often selected after significant weight loss or the aging process.

Botox is an injected substance, derived from botulinum toxin A. For many years, it has been used to treat medical muscle spasm conditions. It's cosmetic purpose is to soften and relax forehead/scowl lines as well as crows feet around the eye area, thus creating an overall more youthful appearance. Repeat procedures are required as Botox is not permanent.

Breast Enlargement /Augmentation (Mammaplasty) Breast Enlargement /Augmentation is a procedure which enhances the shape and size of the breast, by the placing of implants below or above the chest (pectoral) muscle. There are various options available, each of which should be investigated before making your decision i.e. placement, shape, volume, type of fill and surface texture of the implant as well as where the incisions are made.

Breast Lift (Mastopexy)
Breast Lift, is a procedure which raises, reshapes, and firms the breasts. Aging, weight gain/loss or nursing can cause drooping or sagging breasts. As the procedure does not alter the volume of breast tissue, a breast augmentation procedure is often performed at the same time.

Breast Reduction (Mammaplasty)
This procedure is performed to
decrease the size of overly large breasts to alleviate painful physical or emotional symptoms. The nipple/areola are usually repositioned as large breasts tend to droop. Surveys consistently highlight this procedure as one with very high satisfaction rates.

Breast Reduction in Men (Gynecomastia)
Breast Reduction in men, is achieved by the removal of breast tissue, fat (liposuction) or a combination of both. It is most commonly  caused by excess fat or medication.

Brow Lift
Brow Lift, also known as a forehead lift, is a procedure that restores a more youthful, refreshed look to the area above the eyes. It is often done in conjunction with eyelid surgery, thereby improving the look of the eyes and thus upper face. There are two ways of achieving this effect, i) an 'ear to ear' incision is made across the top of the head, the forehead is pulled up, the excess skin is removed and the brow reattached (coronal), or ii) tiny incisions (approximately 4-6) are placed at the hairline, and the brow is lifted and affixed to underlying tissue.

Cheek Augmentation (Malarplasty)
Cheek Implants are used to provide high cheekbones and is a procedure that reshapes and enhances the cheek area of the face. The procedure is often performed after an accident or to enhance genetic features.

Chemical Peels
A Chemical Peel, is a procedure to remove dead skin cells and stimulate the production of new skin cells.  A chemical solution ranging from mild to strong is used on the face, resulting in the softening/improvement of fine lines, wrinkles, skin tone or irregular pigmentation.

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Chin Augmentation
Chin Augmentation
is a procedure to reshape and enhance the chin, to create a more balanced profile. A popular method involves a chin implant. The procedure is often accompanied by rhinoplasty surgery (nose reshaping).

Cosmetic Surgery
Cosmetic surgery focuses mainly on the enhancement or beautification of specific facial or body parts. It does not necessarily include reconstruction or restoration, except in specific cases.  such as rhinoplasty-where both function (breathing, etc.) and shape (removal of bump, etc.) are addressed.

Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic Dentistry is a field of dentistry dedicated to enhancing a person’s smile and overall appearance.       

Dental Implants

Dental Implants, are fixtures of titanium which are surgically screwed into the jaw. The implant acts as an anchor for a false tooth or a set of false teeth.     

, also known as micro-dermabrasion, is to rejuvenate the skin.  A mechanical or chemical process is used to remove dead and flaking skin cells. The overall effect is an improvement in the treated skin's appearance by  the reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, acne and raised scarring.

Ear Pinning (Otoplasty)
Otoplasty is
a procedure to 'pin back' protruding ears. It is often carried out on pre-school children, thereby eliminating teasing and the associated emotional consequences. The improvement is immediate, and the procedure has a very high success rate.

Endoscopic Procedures
An endoscope is a medical video scope, which allows the surgeon to view inside the body through very small, limited incisions during surgery. A big benefit is the reduction in recovery time, discomfort and scarring.

Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty)

Eyelid Surgery is a procedure that 'opens' and improves the looks of the eyes. The effect is achieved by the removal of  excess skin from the upper and lower eye. In addition, fat is either removed  from or  reposition in the lower lids. Upper and lower lid surgery can be perform
ed together or separately. There are various options available, each of which should be investigated before making your decision.
Eye Surgery (LASIK & Epi-LASEK)
Eye Surgery (LASIK & Epi-LASEK), involves using a laser to correct common vision conditions such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. The same lasers are used for both LASIK & Epi-LASEK laser eye operations and results are similar.  LASIK laser eye treatment involves cutting the cornea and is dependent on surgical skill. LASIK can have complications e.g.  infection, dry eye, night vision problems, the benefit is that it is usually pain free with fast recovery.  Epi-LASEK treatment does not involve cutting, is safer and simpler but there is some discomfort and recovery time is longer.  
Facelift (Rhytidectomy)
A facelift,  brings about improvements to sagging and loose skin, however it does not change the texture or pigmentation of the skin.  This procedure removes wrinkles by the removal of excess skin and usually addresses the underlying muscle and connective tissue. Normally a facelift will include the mid-face/cheek area as well as the neck.

Hair Restoration
Hair restoration procedures are designed to restore or improve the natural hairline. There are many options available for hair restoration from medications to hair follicle transplantation, where
hair is taken from donor areas and transplanted to the balding areas. Hair restoration may require a minimum of several sessions.

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Laser Resurfacing

Laser Resurfacing is a procedure that uses a laser  to remove the top layer of skin, and thus reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Laser treatment should not be entered into lightly.

Lip Augmentation
Lip augmentation is a procedure to enhance the fullness of the lips. This is
achieved by natural injectable fillers or synthetic implants.

Liposuction (Lipoplasty)
Liposuction is a procedure used to sculpt the body by removing unwanted fat deposits from specific areas. It is the most favoured cosmetic procedure (men and women).  A long-thin vacuum probe ("cannula") is used to extract the fat through small incisions made at specific sites on the body, depending upon the areas to be addressed.. There are several techniques offered by surgeons for this procedure, the most common introduces an anesthetic solution to help reduce blood loss and bruising.

Nose Reshaping (Rhinoplasty)
Commonly known as a "nose job," a rhinoplasty
is a procedure which I) improves the function e.g. breathing or ii) reshapes the nose.

Permanent Eye Liner Permanent Eye Liner is the process of micro-implantation of pigment under the skin to give the appearance that eyeliner has been applied.

Permanent Make-up
Permanent Make-up, also called micro-pigmentation, is the micro-implantation of mineral extract under the skin resulting in waterproof permanent make-up.
Teeth Veneers
Veneers are porcelain or plastic covers placed over the front teeth to change the colour or shape of the teeth.   They are usually used where teeth are considered too small, too big, or uneven. Tooth enamel discoloration can be caused by staining
(medications, coffee &  tea) aging, or chemical damage  (cigarettes) to teeth.

Tooth Whitening

Tooth Whitening is a chemical process that bleaches the teeth to reduce discoloration and staining, or simply to provide whiter, brighter teeth. Tooth enamel discoloration can be caused by staining (medications, coffee &  tea) aging, or chemical damage  (cigarettes) to teeth.    

Tummy Tuck (Abdominoplasty )
Abdominoplasty is surgery that results in the tightening of both the abdominal muscles and skin. A 'mini tuck' is less severe,   and is concerned with the improvement of muscle and skin weakness in the lower abdomen. A Tummy Tuck is usually selected as a consequence of pregnancies or large losses in weight.

Vein Therapy (Sclerotherapy)
Vein Therapy,  is the procedure to address the removal of varicose and spider veins. The two most common types of vein therapy are saline/chemical solutions injected into the vein and laser therapy. Laser therapy is usually effective on smaller areas of spidering.