Factors Affecting Skin
         
Maintaining the beauty and youthfulness of our face tends to be a daily preoccupation for many women and men. Skin, particularly your face is in constant contact with the external environment and is also significantly affected by internal factors like your  health and lifestyle.
 
The results of  damage is evident, as skin will becomes tight, uncomfortable, wrinkled, red, rougher and loses its glow and elasticity .  In the hope of avoiding/delaying the deterioration and aging of our skin, we flock on mass to the latest scientific discoveries and beauty treatments.
Sunlight
Through UV exposure DNA in the cells of our skin is damaged. UV is the major cause of à
-  pigmentation:  The most noticeable sun-induced pigment change is a freckle or solar lentigo.
- Texture Changes:  thickening and thinning of the skin. Thick skin is found in coarse wrinkles especially on the back of the neck. These wrinkles do not disappear when the skin is stretched.
- Blood Vessel Changes: i) the walls of blood vessels become thinner leading to bruising with only minor trauma in sun-exposed areas. ii) the appearance of telangiectasias, tiny blood vessels, in the skin especially on the face.
- Moles:  an increased number of moles in sun-exposed areas.
- Skin Cancer
 
Age
Our age is something that we cannot change. Therefore in order to care for your skin, you need to be aware of the inevitable changes that will occur to it over time.
The effects of age on skin:-
-  Early 20's: skin is young, fresh and at it's best. This is the time to start looking after it.
- 20's / early 30;s: skin tends to start loosing the 'bloom' of youth and my start showing signs of dryness. If this occurs try switching to a  richer moisturiser.
- Mid / late 30's: If you have dry skin, you may begin to notice the emergence of fine lines, this occurs in oily skin at a later stage. At the same time tiny blood vessels may appear
around the cheeks and nose. These can be skilfully hidden with make-up.
- 40's: Skin begins to loose it's tone, strength and elasticity. Wrinkles and bags from, also the skin
dries leaving it loose and flabby.
- Older: Skin is fragile and shows everything more. It is inelastic and flushes easily. Pores become enlarged, and lines deepen around your eyes, mouth and forehead. Older complexion is dull and the skin is dry. There are often broken capillaries on the cheeks and nose.

Exercise and Ageing Skin

Cold and Wind
The cold and windy conditions of winter
à often result in itchy, dry skin. Skin responds by increasing oil production to compensate for the weather's drying effects. A good moisturiser will help ease symptoms of dry skin. Also, drinking lots of water can keep your skin hydrated and looking radiant.
Hormones
Oestrogen:
Oestrogen's helps to keep the skin hydrated soft an subtle.
- High levels (pill)  à Uneven pigmentation
- Falling levels (after menopause) as cell renewal levels fall à  dry and    
      susceptible to environmental damage
Testosterone:
- Falling Oestrogen levels (above) results in relatively high levels of testosterone à larger pores, increased oil production and facial hair.
Smoking
Nicotine constricts the small  blood vessels and decreases the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the epidermis  à
i) is one of the main causes of wrinkles, especially around the mouth.
ii) increases the time it takes the skin to recover from wounds
iii) stains the skin
See Save your skin...stop smoking
Stress
Adrenal gland secretes hormones à stimulates increased oil production from the sebaceous glands.
Air pollution
Pollution is problematic for your skin for several reasons.
à Dust can clog pores and increase bacteria on the face, both of which lead to acne or spots.
à Invisible chemical pollutants in the air can interfere with your skin's natural protection system, breaking down the natural skin's oils that normally trap moisture in your skin and keep it supple. Studies show that pollution can actually cause reactions in the skin that inhibit the way it builds and repairs itself. Remember to thoroughly cleanse your skin each evening to wash away dirt and grime.
Alcohol
Heavy drinking à constant dilation of the tiny blood vessels in the face, which can lead to a permanent network of reddish capillaries, particularly across nose and cheeks.
Climate Control,
Modern living forces our skin to cope with sudden temperature and humidity extremes. à
i) Winter - We go from cold windy and wet to hot central heated homes and offices and visa versa.
ii) Summer - During the summer, we escape the hot dry heat by taking refuge in dry, cold air conditioned rooms. Skin is able to adapt to these sudden changes, but it takes it toll.
Diet
Diets poor in nutrients e.g. weight reduction diets
à  dehydration,  malnutrition, skin, hair & nail loss and increased susceptibility to infections. Conversely eating a healthy nutritious diet can improve and maintain healthy skin.
 Exercise

Increases circulation and aids the distribution of nutrients and oxygen to the skin. Sweating will also helps to release the dirt from your skin à healthy glow.

 

 
Skin Care

Improper skin care can exaggerate any skin condition or skin type. Excessive exfoliation or application of heavy, rich moisturisers on oily skin will stimulate oil production. Bathing or showering in excessively hot water or not using a good moisturiser will dry skin out. Using skin care products that contain harsh or irritating ingredients will increase skin sensitivity. Every skin type benefits from proper skin care. Maintaining a good skin care regimen will help skin achieve maintain balance.